Primary and back-up protection
The reliability of a power system has been discussed
in earlier sections. Many factors may cause protection failure and
there is always some possibility of a circuit breaker failure. For
this reason, it is usual to supplement primary protection with other
systems to 'back-up' the operation of the main system and ensure
that nothing can prevent the clearance of a fault from the system.
Back-up protection may be obtained automatically as an inherent feature of the main protection scheme, or separately by means of additional equipment.
Time graded schemes such as over current or distance protection schemes are examples of those providing inherent back-up protection; the faulty section is normally isolated discriminatively by the time grading, but if the appropriate relay fails or the circuit breaker fails to trip, the next relay in the grading sequence will complete its operation and trip the associated circuit breaker, thereby interrupting the fault circuit one section further back. In this way complete back-up cover is obtained; one more section is isolated than is desirable but this is inevitable in the event of the failure of a circuit breaker.
Where the system
interconnection is more complex, the above operation will be
repeated so that all parallel infeeds
If the power system is protected mainly by unit schemes, automatic back-up protection is not obtained, and it is then normal to supplement the main protection with time graded over current protection, which will provide local back-up cover if the main protective relays have failed, and will trip further back in the event of circuit breaker failure.
protection is inherently slower than the main protection and,
depending on the power system configuration, may be less
discriminative. For the most important circuits the performance may
not be good enough, even as a back-up protection, or, in some cases,
not even possible, owing to the effect of multiple infeeds. In these
cases duplicate high speed protective systems may be installed.
These provide excellent mutual back-up cover against failure of the
protective equipment, but either no remote back-up protection
against circuit breaker failure or, at best, time delayed cover.
Breaker fail protection can be obtained by checking that fault current ceases within a brief time interval from the operation of the main protection. If this does not occur, all other connections to the bus bar section are interrupted, the condition being necessarily treated as a bus bar fault. This provides the required back-up protection with the minimum of time delay, and confines the tripping operation to the one station, as compared with the alternative of tripping the remote ends of all the relevant circuits.
The extent and
type of back-up protection which is applied will naturally be
related to the failure risks and relative economic importance of the
system. For distribution systems where fault clearance
Times are not
critical, time delayed remote back-up protection is adequate but for
EHV systems, where system stability is at risk unless a fault
is cleared quickly, local back-up, as described above, should be
Ideal back-up protection would be completely independent of the main protection. Current trans-formers, voltage transformers, auxiliary tripping relays, trip coils and D.C. supplies would be duplicated. This ideal is rarely attained in practice. The following compromises are typical:
a. Separate current transformers (cores and secondary windings only) are used for each protective system, as this involves little extra cost or accommodation compared with the use of common current transformers which would have to be larger because of the combined burden.
b. Common voltage transformers are used because duplication would involve a considerable increase in cost, because of the voltage transformers them-selves, and also because of the increased accommodation which would have to be provided. Since security of the VT output is vital, it is desirable that the supply to each protection should be separately fused and also continuously supervised by a relay which will give an alarm on failure of the supply and, where appropriate, prevent an unwanted operation of the protection.
c. Trip supplies to the two protections should be separately fused. Duplication of tripping batteries and of tripping coils on circuit breakers is sometimes provided. Trip circuits should be continuously supervised.
d. It is desirable that the main and back-up protections (or duplicate main protections) should operate on different principles, so that unusual events that may cause failure of the one will be less likely to affect the other.